Cucurbitaceae (Pumpkin family)
It is cultivated in throughout India. It is propagated by seeds in farms as vegetable crop.
A rnonoecious, much-branched climbing annual with angled and grooved stems and ha, young parts, tendrils simple. slender and elongate, leaves elongate: leaves simple, orbicular, cordate and deeply divided into 5-7 lobes. flowers unisexual, yellow on 5-10 cm long peduncles; fruits 5-15 cm long, 3valved capsules, pendulous. fusiform. ribbed and beaked bearing mumerous trongular.tubercles. seeds many or few with shining sculptured surface. Flowering-fruiting major part of the year.
Seeds contain glycosides, oil etc. Ascorbic acid and momordicine are found in fruits. 88 75%, moisture in fresh fruits. 2.93% ether ext.. 1.62% alburninolds, soluble carbohydrates, 1 52% black thread and 8.53% ash found in dry fruits. Leaves contain glycoside, resin, saponin, mucilage etc.
Roots - are bitter, acrid. astringent and ophthalmic.
Leaves - are bitter, anthelmintic, antipyretic.emetic and purgative. Fruits - are bitter. acrid. thermogenic, depurative, vulnerary stimulant.purgative, appetising. antidobetic, carminative, digestive, stomachic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory,ernmenagogue. febrifuge and tonic.
Roots - are useful in colpoptosis and ophthalrnopathy. Leaves - are useful in vitiated conditions ofPitta ,helminthiasis, constipation, intermittent lever, burning sensation of the sole and nyctalopia.
Fruits - are useful in vitoted conditions of Kapha and NM. stun diseases, leprosy, worms, ulcers.wounds, burning sensation, constipation, anorexia, flatulence, colic, helminthiasis, rheumatalgia,gout. promote healthy pancreas, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, haemorrhoids. inflammation. asthma, cough,dysmenorrhoea, impurity of breast milk, fever and debility.
Seeds - are useful in the treattment of ulcers, pharyngodynia and obstructions of lever and spleen.The leaves and fruits are used for external application in lumbago, ulceration and bone fractures and internally in leprosy, haemorrhoids and jaundice.