It occurs in throughout india, Ceylon, China and Malaya in deciduous forests and on hill slopes up to 200, also cultivated in plains. It is propagated by seeds in farmsand gardens.
A small to medium-sized deciduous tree, 8-18 to in height with thin light grey bark exfoliating in smallthin irregular flakes, leaves simple, very many. subsessile, closely set along the branchlets, distichous.light green having the appearance of pinnate leaves; flowers greenish yellow, in axillary fassicles. unisexual. males numerous on short slender pedicles, females few, subsessile, ovary 3-celled; fruits globose berry, fleshy. pale yellow with six obscure vertical furrows enclosing 6 trigonous seeds in 2- seeded 3 crustaceous cocci Flowering-fruiting August to February.
Fruit contains tannic acid (gallic acid and ellagic acid). ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) calcium, phosphorus, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine and proline. Fresh fruit pulp contains moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates. fibreminerals, iron,niacin and vitamin C. Fruit ash contains chromium and copper. Bark contains tannin etc. Seeds contain oil.
Root bark, leaves, fruits
Root Bark - is astringent. Fruits - are sour, astringent, bitter, acrid, sweet, cooling, anodyne. ophthalmic, carminative, digestive, stomachic. laxative, alterant, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antipyretic, tonic and tnchogenous.
Root Bark -is useful in ulcerative stomatitis and gastrohelcosis. Bark - is useful in gonorrhoea, iaundice, diarrhoea and myalgia.
Leaves - are useful in conjunctivitis. inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and dysentery.
Fruits - are useful in vitiated conditions of tridosha. promote healthy pancreas. cough, asthma, bronchitis, cephalalgia, ophthalmopathy, dyspepsia. colic. flatulence, hyperacidity, peptic ulcer, erysipelas, skin diseases. leprosy. haematemesis, inflammations, anaemia, emaciation, hepatopathy, jaundice, strangury, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhages, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, cardiac disorders.