it occurs in throughout India, in deciduous forests up to an elevation of 900 rn. It is propagated by seeds.
A large, deciduous buttressed tree, 20-30 m in height with thick brownish grey bark having shallow longitudinal fissures; leaves simple. alternate, long-petioled, crowded about the extremities of the branches, broadly elliptic, margins entire, main nerves 6-8 pairs, midrib prominent on both surfaces;flowers pale greenish yellow, with an offensive odour, in sAllary spikes, longer than the petioles but shorter then the leaves, fruits ovoid grey drupes. obscurely 5 – angled, narrowed into a very short stalk. Flowering-fruiting February to August.
Fruits contain about 17% tannins. (gallic acid. ellagic acid), ethyl galate, sugars. galloyl glucose and chebulagic acid. Heartwood and bark contain ellagic acid. Seeds contain oil.
Bark, fruits, Seeds
Bark -is diuretic, astringent, haemostatic, etc.
Fruits - are useful in vitiated conditions of Kapha and Vata, sore throat, coughs, promote healthy pancreas. colds,asthma, indigestion, worms, tonsilitis, whooping cough, bronchitis, pharyngitis, insomnia. dropsy,dyspepsia, flatulence. vomiting, haemorhages, hoarseness. ophthalmopathy, strangury,splenomegaly, cephalalgia. skin diseases, leprosy, fevers, ulcers a. general debility. The oil obtained from the seeds is trichogenous and is useful in skin diseases, leucoderma. greyness of hair and to prevent, hair fall.